Ecosystems

Comment

Ecosystems

Mindmap - Click button to download

Actual text

  • Ecosystems
    • Units in nature in which living and non-living things interact with each other
    • Biotic factors
      • Levels
        • Producers
          • Plants that can create their own food through photosynthesis
          • Autotrophic
        • Consumers
          • Organisms that cannot create food but have o eat other organisms
          • Heterotrophic
        • Decomposers
          • Organisms that break down dead matter or waste products
            • Fungi
            • Bacteria
            • Maggots
    • Abiotic factors
      • Non-living things
        • Provide the basis for an ecosystem
        • Physical features of the land
      • Soil
        • Sandy
          • Sandy
          • Holds little water
        • Loamy
          • Mixture of
            • Sand
            • Silt
            • Clay
            • Humus
              • The organic material in soil formed by decomposition of organisms by decomposers
          • Soapy
          • Holds a moderate amount of water
        • Clay
          • Sticky
          • Holds a lot of water
        • pH
          • Most plants grow in soil that is slightly acidic
          • Some grow better when it is slightly alkaline
            • Highveld grass
      • Water
        • The water cycle
    • Example analysis
      • An interaction between abiotic and biotic occurs when an animal eats grass
      • An interaction between biotic factors occur when predator kills prey
      • An interaction between abiotic factors occur when the trees use the water

Comment

Diseases and Treatments for the Heart

Comment

Diseases and Treatments for the Heart

Mindmap - click the button below to download

Actual text

  • Diseases of the heart and cardiovascular system
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
      • Symptoms
        • High blood pressure
          • Can lead to
            • A heart attack
            • A stroke
            • A kidney failure
        • No symptoms
          • Known as the silent killer
      • Cause 
        • May have an unknown cause
        • Be caused by a medical problem or medication
      • Possible treatment
        • Avoid salty foods
        • Eat
          • Fruits
          • Vegetables
          • Whole-grain
          • High-fibre
          • Control alcohol intake
          • Take medication
    • Low blood pressure
      • Symptoms
        • Lack of energy
        • Feeling tires
        • Dizzy quickly when you get up
      • Cause
        • Too little blood circulating
      • Treatment
        • Eat more salty foods
        • Drink water
    • Stroke
      • Symptoms
        • Temporary or permanent loss of sensation to body parts
      • Causes
        • Blood clot or burst blood vessel
          • These blockages flow to the brain
            • Brain cells can’t get enough oxygen
              • Damages or kills brain cells
      • Treatment
        • Use medication that helps to prevent the blood from clotting
    • Heart attack
      • Symptoms
        • Discomfort or pain in the centre of your chest
        • Discomfort in the upper body
          • Arms
          • Shoulders
          • Neck
          • Jaw
          • Back
        • Nausea
        • Shortness of breath
        • A cold sweat
        • Feeling dizzy or light-headed
      • Cause
        • Atherosclerosis
          • Narrowing of the arteries
            • Fat (cholesterol) is deposited along the artery walls
              • Coronary arteries become blocked and there is not enough blood flowing to the cardiac muscle
                • This results in death of cardiac muscle cells
                • As the cells die, a person will have a heart attack
      • Treatment
        • Take medication to dissolve blockages
        • Undergo medical procedures
          • Stent implantation
          • Bypass surgery
        • Long-term use of medicine

 

  • Treatments of heart disease
    • Stents
      • Used
        • When the coronary artery becomes blocked
      • How
        • Tube that is expandable is inserted into the blood vessel with a deflated balloon as well as a tube
          • Tube is made out of metal
        • The balloon is inflated, expanding the stent
        • The tube is removed
    • Valve replacement
      • Used
        • When there is a faulty valve
      • How
        • Stem cells harvested from patients bone marrow
        • Stems cells grown into heart valve cells in a petri dish
        • Heart valve cells placed in a special mould to form the shape of a valve
        • After six weeks the valve is fully grown
    • Xenotransplantation
      • How
        • Animal organs are transplanted into humans
        • Pig hearts are genetically engineered to not be genetically rejected
        • Over 60 000 heart valves have been transplanted
    • Congenital conditions
      • A medical condition you were born with
    • Heart transplants
      • Used
        • When there is no other medical option to fix a diseased heart
      • How
        • Very complicated surgery
    • Pacemakers
      • Used
        • Control abnormal heart rhythms
      • How
        • A device is inserted underneath the patient's collarbone
          • The device uses electrodes to send an electric signal to the heart muscle
            • This regulates the heart beat artificially
    • Bypass surgery
      • Used
        • When there is a blocked coronary artery
      • How
        • Doctor removes blood vessel from patients leg
          • Uses it as a graft
        • Graft inserted into the aorta
        • Graft inserted into the blocked coronary artery

Comment

Biomes and the Biosphere

Comment

Biomes and the Biosphere

Mindmap Download - Click the button below

Actual text

  • Biomes
    • Terrestrial
      • Grassland
        • Climate
          • Thunderstorms and hail in summer
          • Frost in winter
        • Vegetation
          • Grass
          • Trees in hills and riverbeds
        • Animals
          • Birds
            • Black korhaan
            • Blue crane
            • Guinea fowl
          • Blesbok
          • Black wildebeest
          • Eland
        • Soil
          • Deep
          • Dark
          • Fertile upper layers
      • Savannah
        • Climate
          • Less summer rainfall
          • High temperatures
        • Vegetation
          • Bushland
            • Baobab
            • Mopane
            • Monkey thorn trees
        • Animal life
          • Most popular animals
          • Birds
            • Hornbill
            • Flycatcher
            • Woodpeckers
            • Shrikes
        • Soil
          • Thin and lacking in humus
      • Forest
        • Climate
          • Temperate
        • Vegetation
          • Tees
            • Yellowwood
            • Ironwood
        • Animal life
          • Birds
            • Turaco
          • Bushpigs
          • Blue duikers
          • Leopards
          • Crowned eagles
        • Soil
          • Fertile
      • Nama-karoo
        • Climate
          • Semi-desert
          • Rainfall is low
          • Very hot in summer
          • Cold in winter
        • Vegetation
          • Small shrubs and grasses
          • Trees grow by rivers
        • Animal life
          • Black eared foxes
          • Black backed jackals
          • Ostriches
          • Spring hares
        • Soil
          • Infertile
          • Rich in lime
      • Succulent karoo
        • Climate
          • Winter rainfall
          • Dry summer
          • Summer over 40ºC
        • Vegetation
          • Thick plants with fleshly leaves
            • Can store water
          • Have spines for water
          • Survive in the form of seeds
        • Animal life
          • Bat eared fox
          • Suricate 
          • Meerkat
          • Barking gecko
      • Fynbos
        • Climate
          • Cool, wet winter
          • Hot, dry summer
        • Vegetation
          • Evergreen plants with hard, tiny leaves
          • Proteas
          • Ericas
          • Resitios
        • Animal life
          • Grysbok
          • Geometric tortoises
          • Protea seedeaters
          • Cape sugarbirds
        • Soil
          • Poor
      • Thicket
        • Climate
          • Rainfall varies
        • Vegetation
          • Replaces forest
          • Shrubs and low evergreen trees
            • Wild olive trees
            • Vines
            • Aloe
        • Animal life
          • Elephant
          • Kudu
          • Vervet monkey
          • Bushbuck
        • Soil
          • Dune sand
          • Sandy
          • Clay soils
          • In one word: variable
    • Types
      • Aquatic
        • Marine Biomes
          • Oceans
            • Evaporation from the ocean
              • Is very critical to the level of rainfall
            • Temperature of the ocean affects climates
            • Marine algae source of oxygen
              • Consume carbon dioxide as well
              • Vary from large kelp plants to microscopic organisms
          • Animals
            • Whales
            • Sharks
            • Octopuses
            • Molluscs
            • Crustaceous animals
              • Crabs
          • Ecosystems
            • Rocky shores
            • Coral reefs
            • Open sea
            • Kelp beds
      • Freshwater
        • Wetlands
          • Appearance
            • Shallow water
            • Vegetation growing in and on the edges of the water
          • Prevent the flooding of lakes
            • They are a sponge
              • Absorb water when the level is too high
              • Release when the level is too low
          • Flora
            • Grasses
            • Sedges
            • Water lilies
              • Arum lily
            • Red-hot poker
          • Fauna
            • Southern red bishop
            • Shelduck
            • Insects
            • Mammals
            • Reptiles
            • Amphibians
              • Striped stream frog
        • Rivers and Streams
          • Bodies of flowing water that move in one direction
          • Water temperature at the source is cooler than at the mouth
          • Water level can depend on time of year
          • Water nearer to the source is cleaner and has a higher oxygen level
            • Trout can be found here
          • The middle of the stream
            • Width increases
            • Species diversity increases
            • Plants
              • Floating weeds
              • Algae
          • The mouth of the stram
            • Water becomes murky from the sediment
              • Less light can penetrate
                • Fewer plants
                • Fish that require less oxygen
                  • Catfish
                  • Carp
    • Each biome has ecosystems that live under the same conditions
      • Have similar living and non-living components
    • Different parts of the world that have
      • Different
        • Climates
        • Soil
        • Types of vegetation

 

  •  

 

  • The Biosphere and Biomes
    • The biosphere
      • Definition
        • The part of Earth and its atmosphere where living organisms are found
      • Organisation
        • 1. Earth
        • 2. Biosphere
        • 3. Biomes
          • Regions of the biosphere that have certain characteristics
            • Climate
            • Soil type
            • Vegetation
        • 4. Ecosystems
          • Units in nature in which living and non-living things interact with each other
        • 5. Communities
          • All different types of living organisms living together
        • 6. Populations
          • The same species living together
        • 7. Organisms
          • Individual living things
      • Components
        • Hydrosphere
          • Oceans, lakes and water vapour
        • Lithosphere
          • Earth’s crust
          • Rocks on and below the surface
        • Atmosphere
          • the gases surrounding Earth

Comment

Comment

Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles

Mindmap Download - Click the button below

Actual Text

  • Energy Flow
    • Food Chains
      • A way to show the direction of energy few from one trophic level to the next in an ecosystem
      • Arrows mean
        • Direction of energy flow
    • Trophic Levels
      • A status which an animal has in a food chain
        • 1. Producer
        • 2. Consumer
          • Primary
            • Zebra
              • Which eat grass
          • Secondary
            • Lion
              • Which eat Zebras who eat grass
          • Tertiary
            • Whales which eat seals which eat small fish
        • 3. Decomposer
          • Break down waste products of dead organisms
            • Known as decomposition
          • Live off the dead remains and waste products of organisms
          • Called saprotrophs
          • For example
            • Bacteria
            • Fungi
            • Flys
            • Maggots
            • Worms
          • Return nutrients back to the soil
    • Food Web
      • A food chain shows one pathway of energy flow
      • Food webs show multiple paths of energy flow
    • Pyramids
      • Energy
        • Shows the amount of energy that can be released
        • The thicker the section, the more energy that can be obtained
      • Numbers
        • Shows the amount of numbers at a trophic level
        • The thicker the section, the larger the number
      • Biomass
        • The total mass of living tissue at a trophic level
        • The thicker the section, the heavier the organism
        • How much mass is required to feed the higher level of the pyramid

 

  • Nutrient Cycles
    • The carbon cycle
      • Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product of respiration
      • Carbon dioxide is trapped by plants
        • Used in photosynthesis
          • To make sugar
      • Carbon is stored in living organisms
        • Such as proteins
      • Animals get their carbon from eating animals or eating plants
        • Decomposers get their carbon from the dead remains or waste products from animals
          • They then release this back into the atmosphere
      • Carbon is stored is fossil fuels
        • Coal
        • Wood
        • Oil
      • Burnt fuels release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere
      • Human influence
        • Become unbalanced by humans
        • Human created energy uses fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide into the air
        • Examples
          • Industry
          • Warmth
        • Global Warming
          • Melts glaciers
          • Increase of the rates of evaporation
        • Deforestation
          • Less transpiration occurs due to the removal of trees
          • There is also less water soaked up
            • Increased run off
            • Leaching
            • Areas are both more prone to droughts and flooding
        • Building of dams
          • Stops the natural flow of rivers
          • Increased evaporation 
            • Due to silt preventing storage in soil
            • This can result in droughts downstream
        • Agriculture
          • Irrigation
            • Removes water from its natural source
              • Often causes leaching
            • Water contains salts
              • Plants also contain salts
                • Often, there are salts left in the soil
                  • This is known as salination
                    • The soil is then too salty for plants to grow in
          • Nutrients
            • Pollutes water bodies
    • The Oxygen cycle 
      • 1. Plants and animals take in oxygen
        • Respiration
      • 2. Carbon dioxide is released due to respiration
      • 3. Plants use the carbon dioxide for photosynthesis 
      • 4. Plants then release oxygen as a biproduct of photosynthesis
    • The nitrogen cycle
      • How nitrogen can be created
        • Harbour process
          • Using machinery
          • Industrial process is very
            • Cost consuming
            • Resource intensive
        • Nitrates are created by bacteria
          • Nodules
            • Living on the roots of legumes
              • These trap the nitrogen
        • Lightning
          • Provides enough energy for nitrogen to be converted into nitrates
          • Fixation with lightning
      • How it is used
        • Need nitrogen to build protein
        • The nitrates dissolve in water and plants absorb the nit
        • Animals eat plants
      • How it gets back
        • Decomposition
          • Into ammonia
            • Then to nitrites
              • Then to nitrates
                • Denitrifying bacteria can free it into the atmosphere
                • Or it can go back to plant proteins
          • Urea
      • Human influence
        • The use of artificial fertilizers can put too much nitrates into dams and lakes
          • This can lead to the eutrophication of lakes

Comment

The Heart

Comment

The Heart

Mindmap download button below

Actual Text

  • The Heart
    • Heart Valves
      • Cuspid
        • Lie between the atria and the ventricles
        • When blood is flowing from atrium to ventricle the valve is pushed open
          • It lies flat against the heart wall
        • As the ventricles contract blood is forces into the cusps which closes the valve
          • Cusps are small membrane-like flaps
        • The valve tendons keep the cusps firmly in position
          • Papillae are the points where the valve tendons are attached to
      • Semi-lunar
        • Aorta and pulmonary artery
        • Blood forces the valves open
        • When open it lies flat against the artery
        • Blood can’t flow back because the valve pockets fill with blood
    • Types of circulatory systems
      • Closed circulatory
        • Most animals have closed systems
        • Blood remains inside tunes until it returns to the heart
        • Movement of blood is easily controlled
      • Double circulation
        • We have two circulatory systems in our bodies
          • Pulmonary
            • From the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
          • Systemic
            • From the heart to the body and back to the heart
    • The external structure of the heart
      • Position
        • Middle of the thorax
        • Between the lungs
        • Slightly to the left
          • Left lung is smaller than right
        • Bottom of the heart is pointy
          • Apex
      • A double membrane known as the pericardium surrounds the heart
        • Fluid between membranes
          • Reduces friction
            • When the heart contracts and relaxes
      • Made up of cardiac muscle
      • Coronary blood vessels supply blood to the heart
        • A blockage here can result in a heart attack
    • Blood Vessels
      • Arteries
        • Carry blood away from the heart
          • Almost all blood in arteries in oxygenated
            • The exception being the pulmonary artery
        • Structure
          • 1. Lumen
          • 2. Endothelium
          • 3. Muscle and elastic fibre layer
          • 4. Fibrous outer layer
        • The bulging of the artery is what we feel as a pulse
        • High pressure
        • Arteriole
          • Branch of an artery
      • Capillaries
        • The thinnest vessel
          • Red blood cells travel in single file
        • Single layer of endothelium
          • Easy diffusion
        • Slow down the rate of flow of blood
      • Veins
        • Carry blood to the heart
          • All blood is deoxygenated except for the pulmonary vein
        • Low pressure
          • Structure
            • 1. Lumen
            • 2. Muscle and elastic fibre layer
              • Thinner than in arteries
            • 3. Fibrous outer layer
        • Venule
          • A branch of a vein
    • Blood
      • Composition
        • Liquid plasma
          • 55%
            • 95% Water
            • Clear/yellowish
            • Carries
              • Vitamins
              • Blood cells
              • Proteins
              • Blood-clotting factors
              • Minerals
              • Hormones
              • Enzymes
              • Antibodies
        • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
          • 40-50%
            • Biconcave
            • Disc shaped
            • Contains a pigment called haemoglobin
              • Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
        • White blood cells (leucocytes)
          • 1%
            • Large cells with nuclei that have unusual shapes
            • Kills foreign cells
            • Get rid of dead or drying blood
        • Platelets
          • >1%
            • Cell fragments that lack a nucleus
              • Clot blood
                • Forming scabs
              • Fight infection
      • Functions
        • Blood carries substances
        • Blood plays an important role in fighting disease and infection
        • Blood helps to control and regulate body temperature
      • Substances carried
        • Water
          • Carried from intestines to the rest of the body
        • Food
          • Specifically
            • Sugars
            • Amino acids
            • Fats
          • Carried from the small intestine to the liver then the rest of the body
        • Waste products
          • Called urea
          • From all parts of the body to the kidneys
        • Oxygen
          • From the lungs to the rest of the body
        • Carbon dioxide
          • From the rest of the body to the lungs
        • Hormones
          • From hormone-secreting glands to the various target organs
    • The internal structure of the heart
      • Upper chambers
        • Atria
      • Lower chambers
        • Ventricles
      • Double pump
        • Separated by a muscular wall
          • Known as the septum
      • = right
        • Deoxygenated
      • = left
        • Oxygenated
      • Valves
        • Between atria and ventricle
          • Atrioventricular (AV)
            • Tricuspid
              • Left
            • Bicuspid
              • Right
        • Semi-lunar
          • Base of the two major arteries
            • Carry blood away
      • Major blood vessels
        • Venae cavae
          • Superior and inferior
        • Pulmonary veins
        • Pulmonary artery
        • Aorta
    • Cardiac Cycle
      • Enters right atrium via the vena cava
        • Flows into the right atrium via the tricuspid AV valve
          • Flows into the lungs via the pulmonary artery which is accessed by the pulmonary valve
            • From the lungs blood flows back to heart in the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium
              • Blood flows down into the left ventricle via the bicuspid AV valve
                • Blood is pushed out the left ventricle into the aorta via the aortic valve
                  • Cycle repeats
      • The cycle
        • Atrial systole (0.1sec)
          • Atria contract
          • AV valved are open
        • Ventricular systole (0.3sec)
          • Ventricles contract
          • AV valves closed
          • Semi-lunar valves open
        • General diastole (0.4sec)
          • Heart relaxes
          • AV valves open
            • So that blood trickles into the ventricles
          • Semi-lunar valves closed
      • Control
        • Natural pacemaker
          • Sinoatrial node
            • Connected to the brain by the
              • Sympathetic nerve
                • Tells the heart to slow down
              • Parasympathetic nerve
                • Tells your heart to beat faster
                • Stimulated by adrenaline (epinephrine)

Comment

The Lymphatic System

Comment

The Lymphatic System

Below is a mind map - click the button to download

Actual Text

  • The Lymphatic System
    • Main lymph vessels and ducts
      • Right lymphatic duct
        • Returns lymph to the bloodstream via the right subclavian vein
      • Left thoracic duct
        • Returns lymph to the bloodstream via the left subclavian vein
    • Where lymph originates from
      • When blood filters out the capillaries, not all of it goes back into the capillaries
      • The leftover fluid goes into the lymph capillaries
        • The lymph capillaries are intertwined between the normal capillaries
        • As soon as the fluid enters the lymph capillaries it is called lymph
    • Lymph capillaries
      • Intertwined between regular capillaries
      • Found everywhere except the brain and spinal cord
      • Join up to form lymph vessels
    • Differs from the blood system
      • It doesn’t have a pump
      • Semi-lunar valves prevent the backflow of lymph
      • Muscular movement during exercise helps push the lymph. along
      • Lymph vessels are blind-ended
        • Only transport fluid back to the heart
    • The functions of lymph
      • Helps the circulatory system to return fluid back to the heart
      • Lacteal
        • The lymph vessel inside the villi of the small intestine
          • Aids in the absorption and transportation of fat
      • Glands
        • Play a vital role
          • In destroying pathogenic or disease-causing organisms
            • The lymph glands in your neck swell if there is an infection
    • Elephantiasis
      • Condition that is transferred by mosquito 
      • The parasite infects the lymph glands of the body, causing them to be blocked
        • The lymph cannot pass through the glands which causes severe swelling
    • The structure of lymph vessels
      • Similar structure to veins
        • Thin walled
        • Semi-lunar valves to prevent backflow
      • Lymph glands (lymph nodes)
        • White blood cells are found in large numbers in the glands
        • The lymph travels through the glands as it flows to the heart
        • If there is any bacteria in the glands, the white blood cells will destroy them
    • Types of Plasma
      • When in blood vessels
        • Blood plasma
      • When bathing cells
        • Tissue fluid
      • When in lymph vessels
        • Lymph

Comment

Member Login
Welcome, (First Name)!

Forgot? Show
Log In
Enter Member Area
My Profile Not a member? Sign up. Log Out