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  • Biomes
    • Terrestrial
      • Grassland
        • Climate
          • Thunderstorms and hail in summer
          • Frost in winter
        • Vegetation
          • Grass
          • Trees in hills and riverbeds
        • Animals
          • Birds
            • Black korhaan
            • Blue crane
            • Guinea fowl
          • Blesbok
          • Black wildebeest
          • Eland
        • Soil
          • Deep
          • Dark
          • Fertile upper layers
      • Savannah
        • Climate
          • Less summer rainfall
          • High temperatures
        • Vegetation
          • Bushland
            • Baobab
            • Mopane
            • Monkey thorn trees
        • Animal life
          • Most popular animals
          • Birds
            • Hornbill
            • Flycatcher
            • Woodpeckers
            • Shrikes
        • Soil
          • Thin and lacking in humus
      • Forest
        • Climate
          • Temperate
        • Vegetation
          • Tees
            • Yellowwood
            • Ironwood
        • Animal life
          • Birds
            • Turaco
          • Bushpigs
          • Blue duikers
          • Leopards
          • Crowned eagles
        • Soil
          • Fertile
      • Nama-karoo
        • Climate
          • Semi-desert
          • Rainfall is low
          • Very hot in summer
          • Cold in winter
        • Vegetation
          • Small shrubs and grasses
          • Trees grow by rivers
        • Animal life
          • Black eared foxes
          • Black backed jackals
          • Ostriches
          • Spring hares
        • Soil
          • Infertile
          • Rich in lime
      • Succulent karoo
        • Climate
          • Winter rainfall
          • Dry summer
          • Summer over 40ºC
        • Vegetation
          • Thick plants with fleshly leaves
            • Can store water
          • Have spines for water
          • Survive in the form of seeds
        • Animal life
          • Bat eared fox
          • Suricate 
          • Meerkat
          • Barking gecko
      • Fynbos
        • Climate
          • Cool, wet winter
          • Hot, dry summer
        • Vegetation
          • Evergreen plants with hard, tiny leaves
          • Proteas
          • Ericas
          • Resitios
        • Animal life
          • Grysbok
          • Geometric tortoises
          • Protea seedeaters
          • Cape sugarbirds
        • Soil
          • Poor
      • Thicket
        • Climate
          • Rainfall varies
        • Vegetation
          • Replaces forest
          • Shrubs and low evergreen trees
            • Wild olive trees
            • Vines
            • Aloe
        • Animal life
          • Elephant
          • Kudu
          • Vervet monkey
          • Bushbuck
        • Soil
          • Dune sand
          • Sandy
          • Clay soils
          • In one word: variable
    • Types
      • Aquatic
        • Marine Biomes
          • Oceans
            • Evaporation from the ocean
              • Is very critical to the level of rainfall
            • Temperature of the ocean affects climates
            • Marine algae source of oxygen
              • Consume carbon dioxide as well
              • Vary from large kelp plants to microscopic organisms
          • Animals
            • Whales
            • Sharks
            • Octopuses
            • Molluscs
            • Crustaceous animals
              • Crabs
          • Ecosystems
            • Rocky shores
            • Coral reefs
            • Open sea
            • Kelp beds
      • Freshwater
        • Wetlands
          • Appearance
            • Shallow water
            • Vegetation growing in and on the edges of the water
          • Prevent the flooding of lakes
            • They are a sponge
              • Absorb water when the level is too high
              • Release when the level is too low
          • Flora
            • Grasses
            • Sedges
            • Water lilies
              • Arum lily
            • Red-hot poker
          • Fauna
            • Southern red bishop
            • Shelduck
            • Insects
            • Mammals
            • Reptiles
            • Amphibians
              • Striped stream frog
        • Rivers and Streams
          • Bodies of flowing water that move in one direction
          • Water temperature at the source is cooler than at the mouth
          • Water level can depend on time of year
          • Water nearer to the source is cleaner and has a higher oxygen level
            • Trout can be found here
          • The middle of the stream
            • Width increases
            • Species diversity increases
            • Plants
              • Floating weeds
              • Algae
          • The mouth of the stram
            • Water becomes murky from the sediment
              • Less light can penetrate
                • Fewer plants
                • Fish that require less oxygen
                  • Catfish
                  • Carp
    • Each biome has ecosystems that live under the same conditions
      • Have similar living and non-living components
    • Different parts of the world that have
      • Different
        • Climates
        • Soil
        • Types of vegetation

 

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  • The Biosphere and Biomes
    • The biosphere
      • Definition
        • The part of Earth and its atmosphere where living organisms are found
      • Organisation
        • 1. Earth
        • 2. Biosphere
        • 3. Biomes
          • Regions of the biosphere that have certain characteristics
            • Climate
            • Soil type
            • Vegetation
        • 4. Ecosystems
          • Units in nature in which living and non-living things interact with each other
        • 5. Communities
          • All different types of living organisms living together
        • 6. Populations
          • The same species living together
        • 7. Organisms
          • Individual living things
      • Components
        • Hydrosphere
          • Oceans, lakes and water vapour
        • Lithosphere
          • Earth’s crust
          • Rocks on and below the surface
        • Atmosphere
          • the gases surrounding Earth

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