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  • Energy Flow
    • Food Chains
      • A way to show the direction of energy few from one trophic level to the next in an ecosystem
      • Arrows mean
        • Direction of energy flow
    • Trophic Levels
      • A status which an animal has in a food chain
        • 1. Producer
        • 2. Consumer
          • Primary
            • Zebra
              • Which eat grass
          • Secondary
            • Lion
              • Which eat Zebras who eat grass
          • Tertiary
            • Whales which eat seals which eat small fish
        • 3. Decomposer
          • Break down waste products of dead organisms
            • Known as decomposition
          • Live off the dead remains and waste products of organisms
          • Called saprotrophs
          • For example
            • Bacteria
            • Fungi
            • Flys
            • Maggots
            • Worms
          • Return nutrients back to the soil
    • Food Web
      • A food chain shows one pathway of energy flow
      • Food webs show multiple paths of energy flow
    • Pyramids
      • Energy
        • Shows the amount of energy that can be released
        • The thicker the section, the more energy that can be obtained
      • Numbers
        • Shows the amount of numbers at a trophic level
        • The thicker the section, the larger the number
      • Biomass
        • The total mass of living tissue at a trophic level
        • The thicker the section, the heavier the organism
        • How much mass is required to feed the higher level of the pyramid

 

  • Nutrient Cycles
    • The carbon cycle
      • Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product of respiration
      • Carbon dioxide is trapped by plants
        • Used in photosynthesis
          • To make sugar
      • Carbon is stored in living organisms
        • Such as proteins
      • Animals get their carbon from eating animals or eating plants
        • Decomposers get their carbon from the dead remains or waste products from animals
          • They then release this back into the atmosphere
      • Carbon is stored is fossil fuels
        • Coal
        • Wood
        • Oil
      • Burnt fuels release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere
      • Human influence
        • Become unbalanced by humans
        • Human created energy uses fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide into the air
        • Examples
          • Industry
          • Warmth
        • Global Warming
          • Melts glaciers
          • Increase of the rates of evaporation
        • Deforestation
          • Less transpiration occurs due to the removal of trees
          • There is also less water soaked up
            • Increased run off
            • Leaching
            • Areas are both more prone to droughts and flooding
        • Building of dams
          • Stops the natural flow of rivers
          • Increased evaporation 
            • Due to silt preventing storage in soil
            • This can result in droughts downstream
        • Agriculture
          • Irrigation
            • Removes water from its natural source
              • Often causes leaching
            • Water contains salts
              • Plants also contain salts
                • Often, there are salts left in the soil
                  • This is known as salination
                    • The soil is then too salty for plants to grow in
          • Nutrients
            • Pollutes water bodies
    • The Oxygen cycle 
      • 1. Plants and animals take in oxygen
        • Respiration
      • 2. Carbon dioxide is released due to respiration
      • 3. Plants use the carbon dioxide for photosynthesis 
      • 4. Plants then release oxygen as a biproduct of photosynthesis
    • The nitrogen cycle
      • How nitrogen can be created
        • Harbour process
          • Using machinery
          • Industrial process is very
            • Cost consuming
            • Resource intensive
        • Nitrates are created by bacteria
          • Nodules
            • Living on the roots of legumes
              • These trap the nitrogen
        • Lightning
          • Provides enough energy for nitrogen to be converted into nitrates
          • Fixation with lightning
      • How it is used
        • Need nitrogen to build protein
        • The nitrates dissolve in water and plants absorb the nit
        • Animals eat plants
      • How it gets back
        • Decomposition
          • Into ammonia
            • Then to nitrites
              • Then to nitrates
                • Denitrifying bacteria can free it into the atmosphere
                • Or it can go back to plant proteins
          • Urea
      • Human influence
        • The use of artificial fertilizers can put too much nitrates into dams and lakes
          • This can lead to the eutrophication of lakes

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