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Lydende Vorm - Passive Voice in Afrikaans

Lydende vorm is passive voice in Afrikaans. When using this new form in the language, a few things in sentence structure need to change, specifically STOMPI. 

Here you can see the basic framework of lydende vorm.

However, you almost always need to add "word" and other words to make the sentence make sense. Here is a basic view on how to do this in different tenses and sentence types.

Auxiliary Verbs

Verb 1: the helping verb (kan/moet/wil)

Verb 2: ge+verb and "word"

Example: Connor kan die bal skop. --> Die bal kan deur Connor geskop word.

 

Present Tense // Teenwoordige Tyd

Verb 1: "word"

Verb 2: ge+verb

Example: Keelan skryf vandag 'n maklike toets.. --> 'n Maklike toets word vandag deur Keelan geskryf.

 

Past Tense // Verlede Tyd

Verb 1: "is"

Verb 2: ge+verb

Example: Dango het op Valentines 'n mooi soen gekry. --> 'n Mooi soen is op Valentines deur Dango gekry.

 

Future Tense // Toekomende Tyd

Verb 1: "sal"

Verb 2: ge+verb and "word"

Example: SK sal 'n wiskunde toets skryf. --> 'n Wiskunde toets sal deur SK geskryf word.

 

Instruction Sentences // Bevelsin

Teenwoordige tyd/present tense: sentence + moet + verb+  word

Skop die bal! --> Die bal moet geskop word.

Verlede Tyd/past tense: sentence + moes + verb + word

Toekomende tyd/future tense: sentence + moet word

 

Question sentence // Vraagsin

Teenwoordige tyd/present tense: question word + "word" + sentence + verb

Verlede Tyd/past tense: question word + "is" + sentence + verb

Toekomende tyd/future tense: question word + "sal" + sentence + verb + "word"

 

 


 

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The Infinitive - Die Infinitief

We use the infinitive, in Afrikaans to say when we want to do something - to run, to hide, to swim.

A basic example of the infinitive is:

I cannot wait to go.

Ek kan nie wag om te gaan nie. 

 

As you can see, the infinitive is very useful to language so here are the rules to using it:

 

1. The om + te always go together (besides exceptions)

Ek hou om krieket te speel.

Ek hou daarvan om te sing.

The way to use the infinitive comes with practice because there are many ways one thing can be said and me teaching you only one way isn't doing the way you speak justice.

Whenever you see these words you know that an infinitive is coming:

  1. Geniet dit (enjoy)
  2. Hou daarvan (like)
  3. Probeer (try)
  4. Verkies (choose)
  5. Is veronderstel (supposed)

 

2. The exceptions

  1. Behoort
  2. Hoef nie

When you see "Behoort" and "Hoef nie" you must know that there is no use of "om" with these words.

So:

Jy behoort die motor te bestuur. (You should drive the car)

Jy hoef nie vir die westryd te kyk nie. (You don't have to watch the match)

 

3. Verbs that change

"is" always changes to "wees"

"het" always changes to "hê"

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Word Order (STOMPI)

Text Breakdown

STOMPI is a key element to understanding and improving your Afrikaans. STOMPI is a template for word order in Afrikaans, if you follow its rules, you will never have trouble writing a speech again! So lets dive in.

 

STOMPI stands for parts of speech and types of words. Here is the acronym STOMPI in its complete form. As you can see, there are verbs after the subject and after the place. Let me take you through STOMPI and explain to you each letter. But first you must understand that each letter stands for a word in a sentence and the word in the sentence will go in the same place as the letter (between other parts of speech). The S stands for Subject. The subject is the person or thing doing the action in the sentence. For example, ons, ek and hulle can be subject words. You must remember that context is very important!

 

The next letter is the silent v which stands for verb 1. There is a simple principle in Afrikaans sentences, and this is, whatever the sentence starts with, the verb comes next. The first verb in afrikaans sentences can be any verb, but if there is an auxiliary verb such as het or sal in the sentence, they will usually be in the verb 1 position.

 

T is the next letter in STOMPI and it stands for time. Time words will be placed after the first verb. You can usually tell time words apart from other words by them mentioning a time of day, or a number that indicates hours or minutes. Examples of time words can be huur, middag and môre.

 

The fourth letter in STOMPI is O and it stands for object. An object in a sentence is a noun and something that an action can be done to. For example you can play on a SOCCER FIELD. Examples of objects can be rekenaar, tafel and pad. 

 

The next letter is M which stands for manner. Manner is the way in which the verb is done. You can think of them as adverbs. For example stadig can be a manner word. In a sentence it would say Die seun hardloop vandag stadig.

 

The P is next and it stands for place. This is a pretty straight forward one. Basically if anything is a place or location it goes in the position of the “p”. Examples of place words are in die bedkamer, huis or klaskamer.

 

The second verb comes next. This is where all of your “GEs” in past tense will go and where the second verb in future tense will go. The second verb can also be any regular verb as well.

 

The final part of stompie is the infinitive. This is very distinguishable because an infinitive is where you have om te in the second part. An infinitive looks a lot like a sentence - here is an example: om crieket te speel.

 

Let me now give you a sentence and we can then identify the different sections of STOMPI!

 

Campbell sal krieket op die veld speel.

 

It is important to note that not every sentence has to have every part of STOMPI.

We can now see that Campbell is the subject, sal is v1, krieket is the object, op die veld is the place and speel is v2!

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Time - Tyd

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Time - Tyd

Tyd or Time in Afrikaans

 

The time in any language is key to speaking it and many everyday questions involve the time. To speak the time you must also know numbers. Here is a few definitions of the time that you need to know. 

  • Hours. The hours in Afrikaans are always written as one word. The only exception is that when there is a vowel at the end of a number, you add a hyphen then huur.

Here are the hours (12 Hour clock)


  1. Eenuur - one o’clock
  2. Twee-uur - two o’clock
  3. Drie-uur - three o’clock
  4. Vieruur - four ‘o clock
  5. Vyfuur - five ‘o clock
  6. Sesuur - six ‘o clock
  7. Sewe-uur - seven ‘o clock
  8. Agtuur - eight ‘o clock
  9. Nege - uur - nine ‘o clock
  10. Tienuur - ten ‘o clock
  11. Elfuur - eleven ‘o clock
  12. Twaalfuur - twelve ‘o clock


There are different ways things are said in Afrikaans. There are exceptions for three things when saying them.

  • To say anything that is related to science or if you want to say hours and years with a number, the measurement unit stays singular/

Eg. 100 liter, 100 kilogram

  • If you want to say how long something takes in hours, for example how long you spent in a airplane, you write it as two words not one.

Eg. Ek was in die vliegtuig vir elf uur.

  • For emphasis on the amount of time something took you use ure or jare.

Eg. Dit reën vir ses ure in Midrand


That concludes the section for time in Afrikaans.

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Diminutives - Verkleining

Verkleining in Afrikaans

 


Verkleining in Afrikaans is used to describe words in 3 ways - An inferior way, a pitiful way and a small size way - The way that verkleining is used is dependant on the context of the sentence. To change words into verkleining what you must do is learn the groups that apply to certain words. Here they are...


1. Ending in -p, -k, -g, -s, -f, these words must have an "i.e." added on to them.


This can be remembered by Piet kry gou sy fietse.


Words with long vowels must have a vowel dropped from them and short, single syllable words must have the consonant doubled.

EG. 

Pak - Pakkie

Kaas -Kasie

Duif - Duifie

Vark - Varkie


2. Ending in -r, -l, -n these words must have "tjie" added on to them (long sounding vowel)


This can be remembered by Rein lag nooit.


Here words with short sounding vowels must have the consonant doubled and "etjie" added on.

EG.

kar - karretjie

pan - pannetjie

vel - velletjie


kraan - kraantjie

soen - soentjie

tuin - tuintjie


3. Ending in -m with a long vowel you add "pie"

Here words with short sounding vowels must have the consonant doubled and have "etjie" added on to it.

EG. 

boom - boompie

naam - naampie


dam - dammetjie

som - sommetjie


4. Words ending in -d, -t these words must have "jie" added to it 


EG. 

hond - hondjie

kat - katjie

baard - baardjie


5. Words ending in -ng with a short vowel must have "etjie" added on to it.


Words ending in -ng but have 2 syllables must have "kie" 


EG.

ring - ringetjie

long - longetjie


ko-ning - koningkie

do-ring - doringkie

va-ring - varinkie


6. Words that have -eeu, -ie, -y, -ei, -ooi, -aai, -oei must have "tjie" added on to it


EG. 

Kraai - Kraaitjie

By - Bytjie

Leeu - Leeutjie


7. Words that have an emphasis and end on -i, -o, -u, -á must have 'tjie added on to them


EG.

Skadu - Skadu'tjie

Foto - Foto'tjie




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Prepositions - voorsetsels

Prepositions are key to the Afrikaans language. They help with everyday conversation and will help you to orally illustrate to people what you are talking about. The only thing that you can learn in this section is the vocabulary of propositions themselves. Here is an extensive list of them...


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Conjunctions - Voegwoorde

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Conjunctions - Voegwoorde

Voegwoorde in Afrikaans

 

Voegwoorde are conjunctions in Afrikaans. They help you to join two sentences together to form 1. This can be useful in sentences that need to flow in everyday conversation. 

 

To learn voegwoorde you must learn the three groups that form the structure for this section. Below are the three groups explained. 

 

Group 1 is the easiest group in this section here all you have to do is place the conjunction in and leave everything else the same. Here are the conjunctions that are in group 1...

 

Maar

En

Of

Want                    - You can remember this by MEOW DOG

Dog

Of...Of

Sowel...as

Nog...Nog

 

The blue groups are the simple conjunctions that you put in the middle of two sentences. 

Eg. Josh hou van rooi maar Susan hou van blou.

The bottom three are different, for these you must do this...

In a test they will give you the question like this- 

Coke is nie gesond nie. Fanta is nie gesond nie. (nog...nog)

To do the question you first identify the part of the sentence that is the same in both.

Coke is nie gesond nie. Fanta is nie gesond nie. 

Now what you must do is remove that part of the sentence. Once you have done that you put the first "nog" in front of your first word and the second "nog" before the second word.

Nog Coke nog Fanta

To finish you put the part of the sentence that was similar at the end.

Nog Coke nog Fanta is nie gesond nie.

 

Group 2 is the group where the verb in second sentence moves to right after the conjunction. Here are the conjunctions that use the rules for group 2...

Dus

Daarom 

Daarhelwe

 

Anders

Daarna

Dan

Intussen 

Nietemin

Gevolglik

 

Al

Nou

Nogtans

Tog

Toe

 - I usually remember this by process of elimination. If it is not a group one word then it is a group 3 or 2 word. If it doesn't have a "dat" in it then it isn't a group 3 word (there are exceptions). However if you want to learn it as an acronym then it would be 3D ADDING ANNTT.

To use a group 2 conjunction you must do the following...

 

In a test the question will look like this - 

Soggens staan ek vroeg op. Ek boorsel my tande baie goed. (daarna)

 

What you do now is put the conjunction between the sentenced then you have to identify your first verb in your second sentence. 

Soggens staan ek vroeg op daarna ek borsel my tande baie goed.

 

Once you have the verb identified move it to the conjunction.

Soggens staan ek vroeg op daarna borsel ek my tande baie goed.

 

Group 3 is a relatively simple group. All you have to do is move the verb to the end of the second sentence. The list of conjunctions that fall under group 3 are as follows…

 

  • dat
  • omdat
  • totdat
  • voordat
  • nadat
  • sodat
  • wat
  • wie
  • terwyl
  • alhoewel
  • toe
  • sodra
  • sedert
  • aangesien
  • as
  • of
  • mits
  • tensy
  • indien

The most common conjunctions in group 3 contain “dat” in them, making it easier for you to remember…

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Pronouns - Voornaamwoorde

Pronouns (Voornaamwoorde)

 

Pronouns in Afrikaans are very simple to work with. In a test or exercise it will be laid out like this... 


Susan het 'n pa. _____ pa het 'n motor._____ hou van die motor. In die motor ______ praat met mekaar.


That is a very simple example of how it will be set out. You will simply have to fill in the blanks. To fill out the blanks you fill in the correct pronoun. To figure out the pronoun that will be used just look at the subject that the sentence says, so in the example above the subject is Susan and therefore all of our pronouns will be feminine.


Here is the list of pronouns you will have to memorise to answer questions. To successfully answer harder questions though you must increase your vocabulary of afrikaans to understand which form of a pronoun to use.


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