Summary of Chapter 12 from Worlds Together, Worlds Apart
The New World (Mesoamerica)
Columbus found America by looking for a shorter way to Japan and China.
Began: 1492, arrived 12 October on San Salvador, Bahamas.
Goal was to generate revenue for the conquest of Granada and to save souls. Killed Tainos on arrival.
Spanish experimented with Colonialism on Hispaniola.
Encomenderos and the crown benefitted.
War in the New World was ceremonial and designed to make enemies tributary subjects. They fought to capture not to kill.
The defeat of the Incas and the Aztecs meant that Europe had
Their way with the human and material wealth of America
Gave Europe a market for their own products
New places to colonize fruitful areas
New scale of imperial expansion
Spain had a tributary empire
Mexico comes out of Tenochtitlán
Afro-European and American exchange
In the Afro-European circuit, before American inclusion, the industry recovered from the black death
Mughals (India), Ming (China), Safavids (Iran), Ottomans (w Asia and e Med.) profit from new trade with the new world
Colonies began in the form of forced sugarcane work by Portugal and Spain
Vasco de Gama first to the East for Portugal, arriving in 1498.
The Portuguese showed force at Aden (Red Sea), Hormuz (Persian Gulf) and Melaka (Malay Peninsula)
They introduced a pass system (cartazes) which Indian Ocean merchants got for free and others had to pay.
No interference between Asia and Africa but intermediary
Critical that Europe found the new world first
Overseas empire and new resources
Conflict inside Europe due to split in the Roman Catholic Church
Exploration started by the Spanish (West) and Portuguese
Portuguese on the Atlantic Coast of Africa
Advancements: caravels, gun powder and cannons. Better with compass and astrolabe
Common for forced religious conversion
War changed to lengthy inconclusive struggles — this favoured large states.
16th Century Trade
Ming focussed on internal economy: Nanjing to Beijing and Grand Canal reconstruction
Kept many goods but traded silks and porcelain in Afro-Eurasia
Lack of silver meant importing from New World through Manila
Indian Ocean revival
Merchants seeking China meant that ports in East Africa and the Red Sea were linked to India, South Asia and the Malay Peninsula
India was the geographic and economic hub; trading spice, cotton and rice for silver.
Melaka was the most important point at the choke point between the Indian Ocean and the South China sea.
Aleppo in Syria important entrepôt for caravan routes
Aztecs centred at Tenochtitlán (Lake Texcoco) in concentric circles
They were united by the belief of repeating disaster ending in death
They had harsh practices and oppression; human sacrifice common
Moctezuma II emporer in 1502 — enemies with Tlaxcalans and more
The Spanish used these enemies to lead to the demise of the Aztec empire.
Moctezuma was killed by fellow ‘Indians’ and after Cortés decided to eliminate the Aztecs.
New leader, Cuautémoc, defeated with all other Aztecs. Cortés now ruler of Mexica.
Natives die due to a lack of immunity — Mexico: Aztecs, Peru: Incas.
Due to this, there was a lack of labour introducing African slaves.
Hernán Cortés the model conquistador — was encomendero in Hispaniola
Doña Marina symbol for mestizos and lover for Cortés
Justified his actions by saying that he came to spread Christianity, save people, take their property and stop cannibalism.
The Incas (Andes, Cuzco), Quechua speaking
Issues around Huayna Capac’s successor (died prematurely).
Huascar (official son) took Cuzco
Atahualpa (favoured son) governed Ecuador
A fought H and won
Francisco Pizarro led the Spanish campaign
Conferred with A at Cajamarca where a trap awaited him
The Spanish then took the new capital of Lima
They staked their own claims for encomiendas and we’re soon at war with each other.
Pizarro assassinated through this
Laws were then made to prevent ecomiendas from being heritable.
This act wanted to solve: the establishment of a powerful aristocracy, prevent a civil war and to reinforce loyalty to Madrid.
The Columbian Exchange
Spanish gained the knowledge and seeds of a new variety of staple foods that found their way all around the world.
The term refers to the movements between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas of previously unknown plants, animals, people and other products.
The Indians were brought wheat, grapevines and sugarcane but most destructively disease. Livestock such as cattle, swine and horses were brought as well.
Small pox - measles - pneumonic plague and influenza
Silver was a measure of success
Portuguese created enclaves along the coast.
Work was hard to find as there was no centralized government
Africans were brought in to work on the sugar cane plantations
Cultivation started in India, spread to the Med then reached the coastal islands of West Africa. Then to Brazil.
Sugar became the most valuable export from the New World in the 18th Century
There were more African slaves in Muslim control than in the Atlantic slave trade at a point
Three cornered Atlantic system
Africa providing labour
America the Land and Minerals
Europeans the technology and military power
Transformation of Europe
Split in Welfare of the ever wealthier Spanish Empire added to the Habsburg dynasty’s power.
Split within the Roman Catholic Church
The Habsburg and the Quest for Universal Empire in Europe
Habsburg dynasty’s were heirs to the eastern half of Charlemagne’s empire
Holy Roman Empire was here
Charles V controlled Spain and its territories as well as Habsburg at a stage
Divided between Ferdinand (brother) and Philip (son)
Philip: Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, southern Italy and New World. Philip inherited the Portuguese throne from his mother
Ferdinand: Austrian, German, Central Europe
Conflict in Europe and the Demise of the Universal Empire
French, English and Dutch were jealous
Money came from pirates and privateers
Most famous raider was Sir Francis Drake
Spanish and English had a war at sea — Spanish won
Europe ended themselves ended the dream of an empire
Protestant Reformation focused on returning Europe to ancient sources
Martin Luther sand his followers ended Christendom through translations of the Bible
He originally wanted to persuade church leaders
Reform founded on three principles
Belief that faith alone saves
Belief that scriptures alone hold the key to Christian truth
Belief in the priesthood of all believers
A counter reform occurred within the church to deal with the uprising of new translations of Christianity
Religious warfare ensued in Europe to benefit the English, Dutch and French. Spain’s demise was due to overwhelming debts coming from the wars.
Mughal India and Commerce
Strength rested on their military power. Babur the founder, Akbar the son.
Primary religion is Islam but tolerated other beliefs
No ocean navy — trade was directed over overland routes and rivers
Portuguese present but only in Goa and Bombay
In 1580/90 the Mughals ended the Portuguese monopoly on trade by allowing Dutch and English merchantmen to dock in Indian ports.
Until 1560 the empire relied on decentralised tribute collectors.
Prosperity in Ming China
Cotton boom and population surge were things that catalysed growth
Asian relations with Europe
Spain had a lot of power due to the silver monopoly of the New World
1571: Spain opened a trade circuit that made good on Magellan’s earlier achievement.
The world became commercially connected