Chemical Bonding - Definitions

Definitions used in Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonds: The lasting attraction between atoms that allows for the formation of chemical compounds.

Ionic Bonds: The complete transfer of valence electrons from a metal to a non-metal. This bonding process creates oppositely charged ions. A metal gives away electrons and becomes a positively charged cation whilst a non-metal takes electrons and becomes a negatively charged anion.

Covalent bonds (molecular bonds): The sharing of valence electrons between non-metals.

Valency: The combining power of an element.

Delocalised electrons: Delocalised electrons are electrons which don't orbit around a single atom, instead, they are free to move.

Non-polar covalent bonds: Non-polar covalent bonds are covalent bonds that are created between atoms of equal electronegativity. The electron cloud between the two atoms is equal (the sharing of the bonding electrons is equal).

Molecules:  Two or more atoms, chemically combined.

Electron sharing: The sharing of electrons between atoms, usually in covalent bonding.

A pair of electrons: Electrons that are found in pairs in a certain atomic orbital. They are not shared between other atoms (called non-bonding electrons)

Valence Electrons: The electrons in the outermost orbital of an atom. The electrons that are furthest away from the nucleus of an atom that usually bond with others.

Electron Transfer: When an electron is transferred from an atom to another chemical entity - usually another atom in the form on ionic bonding.

Polar covalent bonds: A covalent bond where the electronegativity of the atoms is different. The electron cloud is shared unequally between the electrons.

Ions: An atom or molecule with an electric charge due to loss/gain of one or more electrons.