The universal declaration of human rights after WWII:
· The United Nations Organization (UNO) formed at the end of WWII
· Made the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) with the aim of:
Ø Promote human rights
Ø Improve living conditions of poorer countries
Ø Keep peace between the countries of the world
Human Rights in SA:
· UDHR was made but SA’s national party made the policy of racial discrimination called apartheid.
· ‘Non-whites’ were denied basic human rights
· Apartheid used skin colour and other physical characteristics to classify people into their ‘race groups’
· This made light-skinned people superior to dark-skinned people.
· ‘Non-whites’ were divided into categories such as ‘Native’, ‘Bantu’, ‘Coloured’, and ‘Indian.’
· Racism- the false idea that one certain group of people is better than another
Racial segregation before Apartheid:
· The land act of 1913 (this included):
Ø African people were allowed only 13% of the land and the rest was for white people even though they were only 20% of the population.
Ø ‘Black’ reserves were made and were widely spread through the Eastern areas of SA
Ø ‘Blacks’ were the worst disadvantaged race during Apartheid.
Other racial segregation laws:
· ‘Blacks’ were not allowed to vote.
· Had to live in a specific area according to skin colour.
· Africans could only stay in the city if they were working for a ‘white’.
· ‘Non-whites’ had to carry ‘passes’ that showed if they were allowed to live in the city
· Job colour bar made it easier for ‘whites’ to get a job rather than ‘black’ people.
Main Apartheid Laws:
Aim of laws:
· Increase the living standard of white people
· Increase the power of white people
· Increase separation between ‘races’
· Control the movement of ‘Black’ people
· Separate Amenities act- All public amenities were separated and the ‘whites’ got the best amenities.
· The Suppression of Communism Act and the Terrorism act- National Party could ban any political organization that they wanted and detain/arrest/torture them without taking the organization to court.
· Bantu Education act- ‘Black’ children received a lower education.
· Bantu Self-Government act- this set up a system of ‘homelands’/’Bantustans’ for Africans where they could have political rights for their ‘homeland.’
· Population Registration act- this classified all Africans as either White/Black/Coloured/Indian.
· Passes act- All African men had to carry a ‘passbook’/’reference book’ so that the government could control the movement of African males from rural to urban areas.
· Group Areas act- Special areas set aside for a particular ‘race.’
· Prohibition of Mixed Marriages act and the Immorality act- forbade marriage and sexual relations between black and white people.