Apartheid:

 

The universal declaration of human rights after WWII:

·      The United Nations Organization (UNO) formed at the end of WWII

·      Made the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) with the aim of:

Ø  Promote human rights

Ø  Improve living conditions of poorer countries

Ø  Keep peace between the countries of the world

 

Human Rights in SA:

·      UDHR was made but SA’s national party made the policy of racial discrimination called apartheid.

·      ‘Non-whites’ were denied basic human rights

 

Apartheid Ideology:

·      Apartheid used skin colour and other physical characteristics to classify people into their ‘race groups’

·      This made light-skinned people superior to dark-skinned people.

·      ‘Non-whites’ were divided into categories such as ‘Native’, ‘Bantu’, ‘Coloured’, and ‘Indian.’

·      Racism- the false idea that one certain group of people is better than another

 

Racial segregation before Apartheid:

·      The land act of 1913 (this included):

Ø  African people were allowed only 13% of the land and the rest was for white people even though they were only 20% of the population.

Ø  ‘Black’ reserves were made and were widely spread through the Eastern areas of SA

Ø  ‘Blacks’ were the worst disadvantaged race during Apartheid.


Other racial segregation laws:

·      ‘Blacks’ were not allowed to vote.

·      Had to live in a specific area according to skin colour.

·      Africans could only stay in the city if they were working for a ‘white’.

·      ‘Non-whites’ had to carry ‘passes’ that showed if they were allowed to live in the city

·      Job colour bar made it easier for ‘whites’ to get a job rather than ‘black’ people.





Main Apartheid Laws:


Aim of laws:

·      Increase the living standard of white people

·      Increase the power of white people

·      Increase separation between ‘races’

·      Control the movement of ‘Black’ people


Laws:

·      Separate Amenities act- All public amenities were separated and the ‘whites’ got the best amenities.

·      The Suppression of Communism Act and the Terrorism act- National Party could ban any political organization that they wanted and detain/arrest/torture them without taking the organization to court.

·      Bantu Education act- ‘Black’ children received a lower education.

·      Bantu Self-Government act- this set up a system of ‘homelands’/’Bantustans’ for Africans where they could have political rights for their ‘homeland.’

·       Population Registration act- this classified all Africans as either White/Black/Coloured/Indian.

·      Passes act- All African men had to carry a ‘passbook’/’reference book’ so that the government could control the movement of African males from rural to urban areas.

·      Group Areas act- Special areas set aside for a particular ‘race.’

·      Prohibition of Mixed Marriages act and the Immorality act- forbade marriage and sexual relations between black and white people. 









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